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Periodical article Periodical article Leiden University catalogue Leiden University catalogue WorldCat catalogue WorldCat
Title:Ideology, Religion, and Ilparakuyo-Maasai Resistance to Capitalist Penetration
Author:Rigby, Peter
Periodical:Canadian Journal of African Studies
Geographic terms:Kenya
Subjects:social structure
dual economy
Peoples of Africa (Ethnic Groups)
Religion and Witchcraft
External link:https://www.jstor.org/stable/485186
Abstract:Among the Ilparakuyo and Maasai of Tanzania and Kenya the factors which resist capitalist penetration are the age-set organization and the associated rituals, ceremonies, and 'religious' ideas. These in turn are embedded in the overall system of pastoral 'praxis'. The recent past of Ilparakuyo and Maasai, from about 1890 to the present, has been characterized by varying responses by different age-sets to the penetration of colonial and postcolonial power and influence as well as to the forms of commodity relations associated with the colonial and contemporary State formations of Kenya and Tanzania. In order to understand these processes and their impact upon the Ilparakuyo and Maasai social formations, the author examines this recent past, using a rough periodization into four phases: the late 1890s-1913, 1914-1945, 1946-1963, 1964 up to the present. He argues that specific historical conjunctures or 'crises' temporarily polarized the 'elders in authority' and the 'ilmurran' (junior warriors). These contradictions fitted uneasily into the 'ideal' structures of age-sets and grades, as well as descent relationships. In order to uncover the relation between ideology and pastoral 'praxis' the author focuses upon a few elements of the 'eunoto' ritual, the most important age-set 'religious' ceremony among Ilparakuyo and Maasai, which transforms junior 'ilmurran' into senior warriors and in which the 'ilmurran' are able to 'create' (and therefore to 'correct' or 'act upon') perceived changes in the historical social formation. Bibliogr., notes, ref., sum. in French.