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Periodical article Periodical article Leiden University catalogue Leiden University catalogue WorldCat catalogue WorldCat
Title:Employment Generation in Africa: How Have Females Shared?
Author:Due, J.M.ISNI
Notes:biblio. refs., ills.
Geographic term:Africa
Subjects:women's employment
Labor and Employment
Economics, Commerce
employment creation
Women employees
Women's participation
Abstract:Recent ILO and World Bank data now allow a comparison of employment growth in Africa from 1950 to 1978 by country and by sex. Using these data, the author examines the rates at which employment has increased for the continent as a whole and women's share therein. The African labour force increased at an average annual rate of 1.6 percent between 1950 and 1960, and 2.1 percent from 1960 to 1970. Women entered the labour force at a faster percentage rate than men during the 1960s. Women make up one third of the labour force in agriculture and services but only 18 percent in industry. The growth of wage employment has not kept pace with the growth of the labour force, and more persons, including females, are forced into the informal or self-employed sectors. In entering wage employment, African females are handicapped by lower levels of formal education than males; in entering self-employment, females have less access to capital. Women in the predominantly Muslim countries of Africa are much less active in the labour force than those in the non-Muslim countries. In Kenya and Tanzania, where data for a more detailed breakdown of wage employment by industry and by sex were available, manufacturing, public utilities, construction and community services were the fastest growing sectors for total employment from 1962 to 1974, whereas finance and community services employed the most females. Notes, ref.