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Book chapter Book chapter Leiden University catalogue Leiden University catalogue WorldCat catalogue WorldCat
Title:Climate, hydrology, and water resources
Author:Walsh, R.P.D.
Book title:The Agriculture of the Sudan
Geographic term:Sudan
Abstract:The climate of the Sudan ranges from desert types in the north and tropical semiarid and subhumid climates with a short summer rainy season in central Sudan, to tropical wet-dry and tropical rainy climatic types with progressively longer wet seasons in the south. A detailed survey is presented of each of the following principal climatic elements, viz. rainfall (annual rainfall, rainfall regimes, daily rainfall magnitude-frequency), sunshine and solar radiation, temperature and relative humidity, wind speed, evaporation and evapotranspiration, wet season length and structure, and recent climatic change. An examination of hydrology and water resources shows that the whole of the Sudan, except the eastern slopes of the Red Sea Hills, lies within the Nile Basin, yet the contribution of rivers rising in the Sudan to the flow of the Nile is extremely small. Two types of groundwater system are important in the Sudan: deep, regional scale aquifer systems and localized, shallow, often perched aquifers. Next, an overview is presented of water resource development of the Nile system in the Sudan, paying attention to the construction of various dams, the 1929 and 1959 Nile Waters Agreements with Egypt, and schemes proposed for the period 1980-2000. Away from the Nile, water resource development has been geared to improving the availability and reliability of water supply employing surface sources or groundwater sources. An examination of recent hydrological changes of significance to agriculture concludes the chapter. Bibliogr.