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Title:The changing geography of the Lower Nile: Egypt and Sudan as riparian States
Author:Allan, J. Anthony
Book title:The changing geography of Africa and the Middle East
Geographic terms:Egypt
Abstract:This chapter reviews the changing geography of Egypt and the Sudan since the mid-1960s. At the beginning of the review period Egypt was well advanced on an experiment to develop its natural, human and institutional resources with imagination and confidence. In comparison with other African countries Egypt has performed well in that the vast majority of its people are much better off by 1990 than the peoples of sub-Saharan Africa. At independence in 1956, the Sudan was one of the poorest countries in the world. In contrast to Egypt, the majority of its cultivated land was rain-fed, but a significant irrigated sector had also been established. The chapter deals with the development of land and water in Egypt and the Sudan from the mid-1960s to 1990, their dependence on the Nile and the development of Upper Nile water, their economic performance, society and politics, and regional and international relations. It shows that both countries have a poor resource endowment and that their economic prospects are further blighted by their levels of population increase. Egypt has been able to endure and even expand its economic performance as a result of a skilled use of its strategic position internationally. The Sudan has no such advantages and its economic, ethnic, religious and developmental difficulties have led to the virtual collapse of its institutions. Bibliogr.