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Periodical article Periodical article Leiden University catalogue Leiden University catalogue WorldCat catalogue WorldCat
Title:British 'Practice' towards Islam in the East Africa Protectorate: Muslim Officials, Waqf Administration, and Secular Education in Mombasa and Environs, 1895-1920
Author:Carmichael, Tim
Periodical:Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs
Geographic terms:Kenya
Great Britain
History and Exploration
Peoples of Africa (Ethnic Groups)
Urbanization and Migration
Ethnic and Race Relations
Education and Oral Traditions
Religion and Witchcraft
External link:https://doi.org/10.1080/13602009708716378
Abstract:To understand better the nature of the State and the civil society under it, Antonio Gramsci's writings enjoin us to focus our attention on certain institutions. Concentrating on intellectual leadership and the application of law, a certain legal structure ('waqf') and the education system, this paper performs such an exercise in Mombasa and environs in the British East African Protectorate (now Kenya). The British ruled initially through existing Muslim elites, in order to establish their control in the least problematic way. The government also manoeuvred to control the administration of 'waqf' funds, a strategy by which it could influence the religious, social, political and economic lives of their Muslim subjects. At first, State education was not employed to spread British ideologies. A secular school for Muslims was later opened, but the prior shift of British politico-economic interests to the highlands negated the need to use education for strengthening colonial rule along the coast and contributed to the school's fincancial neglect. It operated for five years before its structures were altered with a view to producing graduates possessing certain vocational skills which might serve European economic concerns. It appears that the driving forces behind British practices were short-term ones, determined by prevailing political-economic situations. Notes, ref.