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Periodical article Periodical article Leiden University catalogue Leiden University catalogue WorldCat catalogue WorldCat
Title:Mmatshetshele: The Settlement of a Displaced Group in the Bankeveld
Author:Pistorius, Julius C.C.
Periodical:South African Journal of Ethnology
Geographic term:South Africa
Anthropology and Archaeology
Peoples of Africa (Ethnic Groups)
Abstract:This article describes a possible Tswana refugee settlement on Mmantshetshele mountain on the farm Boschpoort near Rustenburg, Northwest Province, South Africa, and explains the settlement style and the historical significance of this settlement within the context of the pre-'difaqane' and 'difaqane' wars (from the turn of the 18th century to the first three decades of the 19th century) in the Bankeveld. Historical and ethnographic literature was scrutinized for instances of conflict and for evidence of the disruption of settlement patterns of communities displaced during this period. Ethnographic records refer to numerous wars in the Bankeveld and illuminate the disruptive effects which conflicts and raids had on the settlement patterns and life styles of the people. The spatial and archaeological evidence from the site, as well as the absence of the usual types of archaeological material, were analysed in conjunction with predictive criteria and features proposed for refugee settlements and ethnographic evidence. The site's unique spatial location, its spatial features and composition and the absence of certain types of archaeological material require an explanation for its meaning to be considered in the context of the conflict and the displacement of people during the (pre-)'difaqane' wars in the Bankeveld. Bibliogr., sum. in Afrikaans and English.