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Book chapter Book chapter Leiden University catalogue Leiden University catalogue WorldCat catalogue WorldCat
Title:The Islamic Courts Union: the ebb and flow of a Somali Islamist movement
Author:Abbink, JonISNI
Book title:Movers and shakers: social movements in Africa
Editors:Ellis, Stephen
Kessel, Ineke van
City of publisher:Leiden
Geographic term:Somalia
Subjects:Islamic movements
State collapse
foreign intervention
Abstract:This chapter deals with the case of the Islamic Courts Union (Midowga Maxkamadaha Islaamiga in Somali) in Somalia, an Islamist movement active between c. 2004 and 2008. The ICU's social and political aims reflected both internal diversity (and division) and a new international positioning. Later called the Supreme Islamic Courts Council, the ICU emerged as an organized force in 2004 and included a military wing from early 2006. In the absence of State authority in Somalia, the ICU had come to control much of the country by 2006. In December of that year, a military campaign by Ethiopia, in support of the Somali Transitional Federal Government, ousted the ICU, which subsequently split and transformed itself into a new military grouping. The chapter argues that the rapid rise of the ICU in 2006 has to be understood against the background of Muslim movements that existed in the country in earlier decades and unsuccessful attempts to establish a national government. It further argues that while local political dynamics were important in the rise and demise of the ICU, the international contacts of all the actors involved also played a crucial role. Notes, ref., sum. [ASC Leiden abstract]