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Dissertation / thesis Dissertation / thesis
Title:Tracing inclusivity: Contribution of the Dutch private sector to inclusive development in Kenya. Case study of Unilever Tea Kenya Ltd., the flower sector and Lake Turkana Wind Power project
Author:Kazimierczuk, Agnieszka Helena
Type of thesis:Ph.D. dissertation (2020-10-22)
City of publisher:Leiden
Publisher:African Studies Centre Leiden (ASCL)
Geographic terms:Kenya
wind energy
energy resources
sustainable development
dissertations (form)
External link:https://hdl.handle.net/1887/137215
Abstract:This thesis investigates the potential contribution of the Dutch private sector, and supportive Dutch Private Sector Development (PSD) policies, to inclusive development (in terms of outcomes and processes) in Kenya in three sectors: tea, flowers and renewable energy. This study is timely and relevant:- To academia, as to date an explicit link between the international private sector operations in developing countries and their contribution to inclusive development has been little explored.- To Dutch government, as it has been continuously supporting policies and initiatives stimulating private sector and economic development in developing countries since the inception of its bilateral aid.- To the Sustainable Development Agenda debate, as the private sector was identified as one of the main strategic partners to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. This study applied an exploratory research design with the overarching qualitative method of process tracing. Based on the case studies of Unilever Tea Kenya Limited, the flower sector and Lake Turkana Wind Power (LTWP) project, this research confirmed that inclusive development prompted by the operations of the private sector can contribute to poverty and inequality reduction but not in its full inclusiveness potential. Moreover, the identified inclusive outcomes are preceded by lengthy and exclusive political processes. These processes are not only exclusive, but also 'occlusive' in nature - they happen behind closed doors among groups of carefully selected strategic actors. Hence, I have coined the term 'occlusive development'. Overall, support given to the private sector in developing countries by the Dutch government is important, but PSD policies need to be more realistic about what the private sector, in the specific context, can actually do to contribute to a specific dimension of inclusive development in a country.