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Book chapter Book chapter
Title:Income Diversification and Fishing Practices among Artisanal Fishers on the Malindi-Kilifi Coast
Authors:Hoorweg, J.
Versleijen, N.
Wangila, B.
Degen, A.
Book title:Advances in Coastal Ecology: People, processes and ecosystems in Kenya
Editors:Hoorweg, J.
Muthiga, N.
City of publisher:Leiden
Publisher:African Studies Centre
Geographic term:Kenya
Abstract:The fishing practices of fishers at ten landing sites in Malindi and Kilifi Districts that were surveyed in 1999 as part of a larger research project are discussed in this article. The focus of the research was on income diversification among fishers, pressure on marine resources and the relationship between the two. It was hypothesized that fishers with additional resources strengthen livelihood strategies and improve household security, and those who succeed in diversifying their incomes can be expected to have a more positive attitude towards conservation measures and will exact less pressure on marine resources. Two types of income diversification were distinguished: 1) 'activity' diversification at the individual level where fishers had other income besides fishing, and 2) 'earner' diversification at the household level where fishers belonged to a household with more than one income earner. Key indicators were selected that represented four features of artisanal fishing, namely: 1) the number of fishers; 2) the fishing grounds; 3) the type of equipment; and 4) the frequency of fishing. There was no significant relationship between 'earner' diversification and fishing practices while 'activity' diversification correlated significantly with two selected indicators. Fishers with 'multiple' activities used more destructive gear and fished inshore grounds more often, while there was no sign that they were more willing to stop fishing in favour of alternative employment. It was concluded that an activity diversification of fishers did not reduce the pressure on the marine environment. Instead the opposite occurred, fishers who had other employment onshore fished less prudently. (Source: Author Abstract).